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M A Weekly Bulletin - PARACHAT BECHALLAH/ CHABBAT CHIRA 30 JANVIER 2021 / 17 SHEVAT 5781

01/28/2021 02:33:26 PM

Jan28

M.A. WEEKLY 
                  CHABBAT   PARACHAT  BECHALLAH                                  CHABBAT CHIRA

SHABBAT TIMES
candle lighting 4:39 pm
chabbat morning  am
havdalla :5:46  pm

 

 

PARACHAT BECHALLAH  -  CHABBAT CHIRA

30 JANVIER 2021 /  17 CHEVAT 5781

 

C’est la Paracha qui contient le grand miracle de l’ouverture de la mer

Et le cantique chanté par Moché et Bné Ysrael, ainsi que  par Miryam et les femmes 

 

Chabbat prochain, parachat Ytro; la lecture des 10 commandements 

 

Bon anniversaire à Sylvain Chemtob

 

Hazkara : Ronald W. Dalfen, père de Samara Sayegh

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Bechala'h - en bref

Exode 13, 17 - 17, 16

 

Peu après avoir laissé les Enfants d’Israël quitter l’Égypte, Pharaon les pourchasse pour les forcer à revenir et les Israélites se retrouvent pris au piège entre les armées égyptiennes et la mer. D.ieu ordonne à Moïse d’élever son bâton au-dessus des eaux. La mer s’ouvre pour laisser passer les Israélites et se referme sur les poursuivants égyptiens. Moïse et les Enfants d'Israël entonnent un cantique de louanges et de reconnaissance à D.ieu.

Dans le désert, le peuple souffre de soif et de faim et se plaint à plusieurs reprises auprès de Moïse et d’Aharon. D.ieu adoucit miraculeusement les eaux amères de Marah, et, plus tard, fait couler de l’eau d’un rocher en demandant à Moïse de le frapper avec son bâton. Il fait tomber de la manne chaque matin avant l’aube et des cailles apparaissent dans le camp hébreu chaque soir.

Il est commandé aux Enfants d’Israël de récolter une double portion de manne chaque vendredi, car celle-ci ne tombera pas le Chabbat, le jour de repos décrété par D.ieu. Certains désobéissent et partent récolter de la manne le septième jour, mais ne trouvent rien. Aharon préserve une petite quantité de manne dans une jarre, en témoignage pour les générations futures.

À Réfidim, les Enfants d’Israël sont attaqués par les Amalécites, qui sont vaincus par les prières de Moïse et une armée levée par Yéhochoua.






 

Egypt to Israel/Canaan via Gaza/Philistine?

 

When leaving Egypt, we must wonder why didn’t Hashem take Bnei Yisrael to the Promised Land via the land of the Philistines (modern day Gaza) which would have been a much shorter route? Bnei Yisrael were going from Egypt to the land of Canaan.  To get there they would have to travel through the land of the Philistines to get to the promised land. It is clear in this passage that what we today call the Gaza strip is a land that they were likely not planning on conquering at the time. They did not conquer this land for hundreds of years.  The verse tells us “God did not lead them by way of the land of the Philistines, although it was nearer; for God said: ‘The people may have a change of heart when they see war, and return to Egypt’.” 

Rashi and Ibn Ezra both explain that if they took such a short route (a 3-day journey) they would be inclined to easily return to Egypt at the sign of any hardship as they would realize how close they were to Egypt. 

Ramban explains differently based on the wording of the verse.  If we read carefully it says that God did not take them via the short route because he was afraid that the Philistines would not allow them to pass through their land on the way to the Promised Land and would fight with them.  If Bnei Yisrael encountered war with the strong Philistines, they may be inclined to return to Egypt.  The problem wasn’t that the route was too short, rather the problem was that they may encounter the mighty Philistines before they were ready.  For this reason, God took them the long way around to enter the land through the land of the weaker Amorites.  The unanswered question is why didn’t God simply perform miracles to fight the Philistines as he did to the superior Egyptians, especially if the plan was to conquer the land of the Philistines?  It seems that when God promised Abraham the Land of the Canaanites and the 7 or so associated nations, the Philistines was not one of the nations whose land was promised to them.

 

 

Les ossements de Joseph

וַיִּקַּח מֹשֶׁה אֶת עַצְמוֹת יוֹסֵף עִמּוֹ וגו': (שמות יג:יט)

Moïse emporta les ossements de Joseph avec lui. Exode 13,19

Le mot hébreu pour « os » (etsem) signifie également « essence ». Le peuple juif était sur le point d’entreprendre un voyage à travers un désert dont l’infertilité et les périls étaient un reflet de la désolation spirituelle. Afin de lui permettre de survivre à ce voyage, Moïse fit en sorte que le peuple juif soit accompagné par l’essence et l’esprit de Joseph.

L’essence de Joseph est exprimée dans son nom, qui signifie « Puisse-t-Il ajouter », car lorsqu’il naquit, sa mère Rachel formula la prière : « Puisse D.ieu me rajouter un autre fils ».1 Ce souhait connote le désir d’accueillir le Juif devenu « autre » au foyer dont il a été distancé. L’odyssée de l’exil est assimilée à un voyage à travers un désert aride et périlleux.2 Si nous voulons persévérer à travers les périodes de désolation spirituelle, il convient de puiser de l’inspiration dans l’essence de Joseph. Nous devons nous efforcer de ramener les personnes les plus distancées et rétives au foyer, en leur montrant qu’elles sont véritablement les enfants bien-aimés de D.ieu. Si nous demeurons fidèles à cette vocation, nous sommes assurés qu’en définitive, aucun Juif ne sera laissé pour compte

 

 

 

 

 

Hok and Mishpat at Marah

 

After crossing the sea, the people reach their first location, Marah.  The Torah states that after complaining that the water was marah (bitter) Moshe turns the water sweet and then the people are taught “Hok and Mishpat.” It is unclear what Hok and Mishpat refers to.

Rashi quotes a midrash which teaches that three laws were given to the people at Marah: Shabbat, Red Heifer, and Judicial Laws.  One of the reasons the Midrash chooses these three to attribute to this time is because they represent 3 major categories of Mitzvot.  Also, the verse states that God gave them “Hok u’mishpat” which is understood as two different types of laws; Hok-laws without obvious reason (i.e. Red Heifer) and Mishpat laws with obvious reasons (i.e. judicial laws). 

Ramban explains that Hok and Mishpat are not referring to any specific types of laws, as the laws were not given till they reached Sinai.  Only after that time, do we see the laws being given to the people throughout the wanderings in the wilderness through a specific formula (i.e. “And God told Moses: command the people…).  However this is not used over here. Rather, the Hok and Mishpat are simply referring to them being taught the way to live in the wilderness without easy access to food and water.  Accordingly, the laws of Red Heifer, Shabbat, Judicial laws, etc. were not given until after they reached mount Sinai. 

 

BESHALAH  QUIZ

 

1)Q. What does it mean that Bnei Yisrael left Egypt “Hamushim”?

   A.   According to the Onkelos translation it means that they left fully armed with weapons. Ramban adds that they were armed to defend themselves from the strong Philistines should they come out to attack them.  According to the Midrash, Hamushim means one-fifth. Only One-fifth of Bnei Yisrael left Egypt and the other four-fifth died during the plague of darkness. 

2)Q. On what day did Yam Suf split?

   A.  The first night of Pesah was the plague of the first-borns (the night of the seder also known as Lel Shimurim – the night of protection since we were protected from the plague of the first-borns.) The next morning after sunrise (the first day of Pesah) they left Egypt. They had told Pharaoh that they would only leave for three days to worship God and then return to Egypt.  On the fourth day seeing that they did not return, Pharaoh’s servants told him that they ran away. They chased after them on the fifth and sixth days, and the sea split on the seventh day of Pesach at daybreak.  This is why we wake up early on the seventh day of Pesah and have a special learning in honor of the day.

3)Q.  If all the Egyptians’ animals died during the plagues, where did they get horses for their chariots to chase after Bnei Yisrael?

    A.   From those Egyptians who feared the word of Hashem and kept their animals inside during the plagues. (midrash)

4)Q. Why did “fear seize the inhabitants of Pelashet”? (15:14)

    A.  The Midrash teaches us that Efraim escaped from Egypt, before the time for the exodus had come.  The inhabitants of Pelashet fought them and won. Therefore, they feared vengeance for this act.  In the beginning of the book of Joshua we read that many of the surrounding nations were afraid when they heard how the Israelites defeated Egypt.

5)Q. What was Moshe’s reward for taking the bones of Yosef with him out of Egypt?

    A.  Moshe was the greatest man in Bnei Yisrael, and he personally took out Yosef’s bones.  Hashem rewarded him Mida K’neged Mida - measure for measure.  When Moshe died, the greatest person should have taken care of his body, but since there was no one greater than him, Hashem took care of Moshe’s body.

6)  Q.  When Bnei Yisrael complained for food, what did they receive?

      A.  Hashem gave them manna and meat.  The verse tells us that they received manna in the morning enough to satiate them, and meat in the evening for them to eat.  Birds would fly to them for them to eat.  In sefer Bemidbar we see that they complained again for meat.  Why would they complain if they were already receiving meat?  There are two explanations given by the Ramban.  The basic meaning of the verse is that Hashem gave them meat for only a few days or even less, and that is why later in sefer Bemidbar Hashem to give you meat, not only for one or a few days but for an entire month this time.  Some Rabbis explain that they received meat every evening (for 40 years), just as they received manna every morning, but the meat was not sufficient for everyone, so those that did not receive (a group called the asafsuf) later complained to Hashem

 

LES MIRACLES

Notre parachah nous transporte sur un nuage de merveilleux : la nuée qui nous guide, le passage de la mer des Joncs, les eaux de Marah, la manne…

Laissons-nous guider par un Dieu qui prévient tous nos désirs, remplit toutes nos attentes, met fin à toutes nos angoisses…

Quoi de plus grisant en effet que ce passage de la mer des Joncs où la plus puissante armée du monde est mise en déroute par un peuple de gueux et d’esclaves ? Ou que cette manne qui s’arrête le Chabat ? On croit rêver ! Miracle, miracle, miracle !

 

Et tout d’un coup, on ne comprend plus : à peine le peuple a-t-il un peu soif en arrivant à Refidim (Exode 17, 1), qu’il semble remettre en cause la possibilité même de l’existence divine : « La Transcendance existe-t-elle au milieu de nous, ou non (néant !) » (Exode 17, 7).

Comment une telle question est-elle possible après autant de miracles ? Il faut être stupide ! Pas du tout : il suffit d’agir comme un enfant gâté (voir Rachi). C’est-à-dire de ne pas entendre tous ces « miracles » comme des signes destinés à nous éduquer et à nous responsabiliser, mais comme des fins en eux-mêmes, visant au simple comblement de nos manques, à la pure satisfaction de nos besoins.

 

 

Since it is Chabbat Chira , Today’s Haftara is also a song sang by                     Deborah in her fight against Sisera

 

Most of the Bible is written as prose, though there are examples of poetry (such as in Psalms), as well as song. The two most famous biblical songs are the Song of the Sea, which is in this week’s Torah portion, and the Song of Deborah, which is in this week’s Haftarah.

Deborah is one of the Israelite leaders in the Book of Judges. She is a prophet and a judge, and she keeps court under a palm tree in the hill country, where people come for guidance.

Barak & Deborah Fight Sisera

Deborah also communicates God’s wishes to the people, and one day she calls for Barak, a general in the military, and tells him that God commands him to report to Mount Tabor, with a company of 10,000 soldiers. There, she tells him, he will meet Sisera, the commander of the army of Hazor. They will fight, and Barak will win.

Barak answers that he will go into battle only if Deborah accompanies him. She accedes to this request, but warns him that he will receive no glory if she comes, “for now the Eternal will hand Sisera over to a woman” (Judges 4:9).

Barak accepts these terms and together with Deborah and his warriors, he ascends the mountain. At once, “the Eternal throws Sisera, his chariots, and his whole army into disarray” (Judges 4:15). Sisera himself is thrown from his chariot and runs away on foot. All his troops are killed, but Sisera is kept alive. He retreats to the camp of Yael, a powerful woman who is married to one of Sisera’s allies. Yael takes him in and covers him in a blanket.

Yael Secures A Victory

When Sisera asks for water, Yael instead gives him milk, which lulls him to sleep. Once asleep, she takes a tent-peg and a mallet and drives it through his head. Then, when Barak comes searching for him, Yael shows him Sisera’s pierced head.

To commemorate this victory, and in particular Yael’s role in it, Barak and Deborah sing a song. The song dramatizes this battle, as well as others fought by Barak, and tells of the military victories of different tribes of Israel.

It concludes with a tribute to Yael, retelling her murder of Sisera in more detail than the original verses, and a plea to God to continue to support the Israelites in battle, so long as they continue to love God.

Both  the Torah portion this week and the Haftarah are a curious combination of military battles and victory songs. But, while Miriam’s song in the Torah straight forwardly praises God for defeating Egypt, the Song of Deborah is a testament to both God and Israel, extolling both divine miracles and human effort.

 

Le "Chant de la Mer"  az yachir Moché

Le chant de Rédemption le plus célèbre est Chirat Hayam, le "Chant de la mer" chanté par Moché et les enfants d'Israël quand ils eurent traversé la Mer Rouge. Nous récitons ce chant chaque jour dans nos prières du matin et le lisons publiquement à la synagogue deux fois par an: le septième jour de Pessa'h (l'anniversaire du miracle de la Mer Rouge) et un Chabbat d'hiver, dans le cours des lectures hebdomadaires de la Torah, un Chabbat qui se distingue donc avec le nom: Chabbat Chirah, le "Chabbat du Chant".

Le "Chant de la Mer" glorifie D.ieu pour la rédemption miraculeuse d'Israël quand Il ouvrit la Mer Rouge pour eux et noya les Egyptiens qui les poursuivaient. Il exprime le désir d'Israël que D.ieu les guide vers leur pays et repose Sa présence sur eux dans le Saint Temple. Il se conclut avec une référence à la Rédemption ultime quand "D.ieu règnera à jamais".

En fait, "le chant de la Mer" présente deux versions, une version masculine et une version féminine. Quand Moché et les Enfants d'Israël eurent chanté leur chant, "Miryam la prophétesse, la sœur de Moché, prit le tambourin dans sa main; et toutes les femmes suivirent avec des tambourins et des danses. Et Miryam les appela: "Chantez à D.ieu, car Il est le plus Saint; le cavalier et son cheval, Il les a jetés dans la mer..."

Les hommes chantèrent puis les femmes chantèrent, jouèrent du tambourin et dansèrent. Les hommes chantèrent leur joie devant la délivrance, chantèrent leur aspiration à une rédemption encore plus parfaite mais quelque chose manquait. Une dimension que seule une femme pouvait apporter.

Le sentiment et la foi

Miryam, la sœur aînée de Moché et d'Aharon, suscita et dirigea ce "Chant de la mer", Miryam qui avait été appelée "amertume" (mar en hébreu signifie "amer") parce qu'au moment de sa naissance, le Peuple Juif était entré dans la phase la plus difficile de l'exil égyptien, Miryam qui, lorsque le nourrisson Moché avait été placé dans une corbeille, sur le bord du Nil, "se tenait, l'observant pour voir ce qu'il adviendrait de lui" (Chemot 2:4).

L'image de cette jeune femme cachée dans l'épaisseur des buissons au bord du fleuve, animée par l'espoir de la rédemption, persévérant en dépit de l'amertume de l’exile.

Miryam et son chœur apportèrent au "Chant de la Mer" l'intensité du sentiment et de la profondeur de la foi spécifiques aux femmes. et les danses.

 

 

 

 

 

ENGLISH  PROVERBS 

 

Before telling secrets on the road, look in the bushes

A bad word whispered echoes a hundred miles*

In a flood of words, surely some mistakes*

A sharp tongue or pen can kill without a knife*

The judge with seven reasons states only one in court

If you want no one to know, don't do it*

If you want your dinner, don't insult the cook*

Honest scales and full measure hurt no one*

Divide an orange--it tastes just as good

If you always give you will always have

Better lean and good than fat and evil

To build it took one hundred years; to destroy it one day

 

 

THE SHABBAT SMILE:

When his computer began to act up, a man called his local computer repair shop – Chaim’s Computers.

The clerk said: "From your description of the problem, your computer probably only needs an anti-virus program. It will cost you $50 to have it done here so really you'd be better off reading some information online and doing it yourself for free."

Pleasantly surprised by the clerk's honesty, the man said: "Does your boss know that you discourage business?"

"Who, Chaim?" asked the clerk sheepishly. "It's actually his idea. We usually make more money on repairs if we let people try to fix things themselves first."

 

Two elderly widows, Rhoda Epstein and Norma Rabinowitz, were curious about the latest arrival in their retirement residence in Boca Raton, Florida. He was a quiet, distinguished gentleman who seemed to believe in keeping to himself.

One day Rhoda said: "Norma, you're so much more confident in these matters. Why don't you approach him at the pool and find out a little more about him? He looks so lonely."

So Norma went over to talk to the man as he sat by the pool. "My friend and I were wondering why you look so lonely," she said.

"Of course I'm lonely," he snapped. "I've spent the last 30 years in prison."

"Oh, why?"

"I strangled my third wife."

"Oy. What happened to your second wife?"

"We had a fight and she fell off a high building."

"Oy vey!" Then Norma turned to her friend on the other side of the pool and called out: "Yoo hoo, Rhoda! He's single!"

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A Hassidic Jew in a big shtreimel (traditional fur hat) is stopped at customs by an agent at JFK airport and asked: "Taliban?"

"No!" the man replies immediately. "Teitelbaum."

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LE SOURIRE DU CHABBAT

 

Une vieille femme vient voir son avocat car elle doit lui payer une note d'honoraires de 800$. Elle lui remet un billet de 1000$, mais ne se rend pas compte qu'un autre billet du même montant est resté collé au premier. Le soir même, l'avocat se rend compte de l'existence de ce second billet, et est alors tourmenté par une très grave question éthique: 'Dois-je en informer mon associé ?

 

 

 

Pourquoi y a-t-il toujours un verre d'eau vide et un verre d'eau plein sur les tables de chevet des newfis ? - Car, des fois, ils ont soif.. et des fois, ils n’ont pas soif !

 

 

 

Un homme fait un vol de banque et prend des otages. - Il demande au premier otage: "M'avez-vous vu voler la banque?" - L'otage répond "Oui." Le voleur, aussitôt, tire l'otage dans la tête. Puis, il demande au deuxième otage s'il l'a vu voler la banque. - L'otage répond: "Moi Non, mais ma femme, "Oui"

 

 

A une mère juive : « Quel âge ont vos enfants? » Réponse : « Le médecin, 4 ans,  l'avocat 5 ans et le comptable 1 an ! »

                  CHABBAT CHALOM          MAGHEN ABRAHAM 

David Hasson


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Thu, May 13 2021 2 Sivan 5781