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M A Weekly Bulletin - 2 PARACHAIOT AHARÉ MOT ET KEDOCHIM 2 MAI 2020/8 IYYAR 5780

05/01/2020 12:36:01 PM

May1

M.A. WEEKLY BULLETIN  
 2  PARACHIOT  AHARÉ MOT ET KEDOCHIM 
                                           

SHABBAT TIMES
candle lighting  7:43 PM
chabbat morning :8:30  am
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CHABBAT AHARÉ MOT- KEDOCHIM

2 mai 2020 / 8 iyyar 5780

 

Pessah Chéni, le vendredi 8 mai 2020

(voir commentaires ci-dessous)

 

PIRKÉ AVOT 3ème chapitre

 

Cela fait 7 semaines que la Synagogue est fermée et le sera encore pour quelque temps. Suite à cette maladie, nous avons passé un Pessah plutôt triste , confinés et sans famille. Heureusement, nous voyons une petite lueur au bout du tunnel avec un graduel déconfinement .Espérons que bientôt nous pourrons reprendre notre vie et se revoir à la Synagogue

Je sais que plusieurs de nos membres habitent seuls et ne sortent pas. Si vous voulez m’appeler pour parler, bavarder ou vous avez besoin d’aide , n’hésitez pas à me contacter 514-943-6779. Personnellement ou d’autres membres de Maghen Abraham se feront un plaisir de vous aider

David Hasson

 

PARACHAT AHARE MOT EN BREF :

A la suite du décès de Nadav et Avihou (cf. paracha Chemini) , D.ieu met en garde contre toute entrée intempestive dans le sanctuaire. Seul le Cohen Gadol (le Grand Prêtre) peut, une fois l’an, à Yom Kippour pénétrer dans le Saint des Saints pour y offrir l’encens.

Un autre trait du service du Jour du Pardon est le tirage au sort entre deux boucs qui détermine lequel sera offert en sacrifice à D.ieu et lequel sera désigné pour emporter toutes les fautes des enfants d’Israël dans le désert ;

La paracha A’harei enjoint également de n’apporter de sacrifices qu’au Temple et interdit formellement la consommation du sang. Elle énonce les lois interdisant l’inceste et les autres relations prohibées.

 

PARACHAT KEDOCHIM EN BREF :

La paracha Kedochim commence par cette injonction : « Soyez saints, car Je suis saint, Moi, l’Eternel votre D.ieu. » A sa suite sont énoncées de nombreuses mitsvot (commandements) par l’accomplissement desquelles le Juif se sanctifie et établit un lien avec la sainteté de D.ieu .Ces mitsvot incluent la prohibition de l’idolâtrie, la mistva de tsédaka (charité), le principe de l’égalité de tous devant la justice, le Chabbat, la moralité sexuelle, l'honnêteté en affaires, l'honneur et la crainte des parents, le caractère sacré de la vie.

C’est aussi dans la paracha Kedochim qu’est exprimé le principe que Rabbi Akiva qualifie de cardinal et dont Hillel dit « c'est là toute la Torah, le reste en est le commentaire » : aime ton prochain comme toi-même

 


And you shall love your fellow as yourself.”

“He commanded us to love one another even as we love ourselves, and that my compassion and love for my fellow (-man) be as my compassion and love for myself with respect to his money, his person, and to whatever he possesses or desires. Whatever I wish for myself, I am to wish likewise for him; and whatever is hateful unto me or to whoever is attached to me, is likewise hateful unto

 

La paracha de kédochim comprend 52 commandements

 

 

 

Voici la liste

 

Les mitsvot de la paracha Kédochim (extraites du sefer Hamitsvot du רמבײם )

Aimer son prochain – Lévitique 19, 18

► Ne pas haïr son prochain Juif – Lévitique 19, 17

► Réprimander un pécheur – Lévitique 19, 17

► Ne pas embarrasser les autres – Lévitique 19, 17

► Ne pas mal parler des autres – Lévitique 19, 16

► Ne pas se venger – Lévitique 19, 18

► Ne pas tenir de rancune – Lévitique 19, 18

► Honorer ceux qui enseignent et connaissent la Torah – Lévitique 19, 32

► Ne pas s’instruire sur l'idolâtrie – Lévitique 19, 4

► Ne pas faire une idole pour les autres – Lévitique 19, 4

► Ne pas pratiquer communiquer avec les esprits (médium) – Lévitique 19, 31

► Ne pas pratiquer la voyance – Lévitique 19, 31

► Ne pas être superstitieux – Lévitique 19, 26

► Ne pas se fourvoyer dans l'astrologie – Lévitique 19, 26

► Les hommes ne doivent pas se raser les cheveux sur les côtés de la tête – Lévitique 19, 27

► Les hommes ne doivent pas se couper la barbe avec une lame – Lévitique 19, 27

► Ne pas se tatouer la peau – Lévitique 19, 28

► Ne pas manger de fruit d'un arbre pendant ses trois premières années

– Lévitique 19, 23

► Ne pas jurer faussement au Nom de D.ieu –

► Ne pas nier la possession de quelque chose qu'on vous a confié – Lévitique 19, 11

► Ne pas jurer afin de démentir une dette monétaire–Lévitique 19, 11

► Ne pas planter des graines de différentes variétés ensemble – Lévitique 19, 19

► Ne pas chercher à faire une reproduction avec des animaux d’espèces différentes

– Lévitique 19, 19

► Laisser un coin de son champ planté mais non taillé pour le pauvre – Lévitique 19, 10

► Ne pas moissonner ce coin de son champ – Lévitique 19, 9

► Laisser des glanures sur son champ – Lévitique 19, 9

► Ne pas rassembler les glanures – Lévitique 19, 9

► Laisser les glanures d'un vignoble – Lévitique 19, 10

► Ne pas rassembler les glanures d'un vignoble – Lévitique 19, 10

► Laisser les raisins non formés en grappes – Lévitique 19, 10

► Ne pas cueillir les raisins non formés en grappes – Lévitique 19, 10

► La récolte de la quatrième année doit être entièrement consacrée à des causes saintes,

comme le Ma'asser Chéni – Lévitique 19, 24

► Montrer de la révérence au Temple – Lévitique 19, 30

► Ne pas consommer du Korban Chélamim au-delà du 2ème jour– Lévitique 19, 8

► Ne pas voler d'argent – Lévitique 19, 11

Tout individu doit s'assurer que ses poids et ses mesures sont exacts – Lévitique 19, 36

► Ne pas commettre d'injustice avec les poids et les mesures pour les superficies, les solides

et les liquides – Lévitique 19, 35

► Ne piller (exploiter) son prochain – Lévitique 19, 13

► Ne pas retenir les salaires ou manquer de rembourser une dette – Lévitique 19, 13

► Ne pas rester passif si la vie d'une personne est en danger – Lévitique 19, 16

► Ne pas placer une embûche devant un aveugle (ne pas donner de mauvais conseils)

– Lévitique 19, 14

► Ne pas retarder le paiement des salaires au delà du terme conclu – Lévitique 19, 13

► Un juge ne doit pas trancher en faveur d'un pauvre par pitié pour lui lors du procès

– Lévitique 19, 15

► Un juge ne doit pas témoigner d'égards à un homme important lors du procès

– Lévitique 19, 15

► Un juge ne doit pas pervertir la justice – Lévitique 19, 15

► Il faut juger avec équité – Lévitique 19, 15

► Ne pas maudire un Juif vertueux – Lévitique 19, 14

► Révérer et craindre son père et sa mère – Lévitique 19, 3

► Ne pas imiter les coutumes ni les façons de s'habiller des autres nations – Lévitique 20,

 

 

 

 

 

Pirke Avot Chapter 3 – Scholar vs good deeds who wins?

 

This week, we read the 3rd chapter of Pirke Avot. In it we read the concept that actions speak louder than words. In this chapter we read:

 

"He [R. Elazar ben Azariah] used to say: Anyone whose wisdom is greater than his deeds to what is he comparable? To a tree whose branches are many and whose roots are few, and the wind comes and turns it over. As it is said: 'And he will be like a lonely tree in a wasteland, and it will not see when good comes. It will dwell on parched soil in the desert, a salty land, uninhabited' (Jeremiah 17:6).

But one whose deeds are greater than his wisdom to what is he comparable? To a tree whose branches are few and whose roots are many, that even if all the winds in the world blow against it, they do not move it from its place. As it is said 'And he shall be like a tree planted on the water, and towards the stream it will spread its roots and it will not see when heat comes. Its leaves will be fresh, in a year of drought it will not worry, and it shall not cease yielding fruit' (ibid. 17:8)."

 

 

PESSAH CHÉNI :Cette année, Pessa’h Chéni est observé le vendredi 8 mai 2020

  1. an après l’Exode d’Égypte, D.ieu ordonna aux Enfants d’Israël d’offrir le sacrifice pascal l’après-midi du 14 Nissan et de le consommer ce soir-là, grillé au feu et accompagné de Matsa et d’herbes amères, comme ils l’avaient fait un an auparavant juste avant de quitter l’Égypte. « Il y eut cependant des hommes qui s’étaient rendus rituellement impurs au contact d’un cadavre et qui ne purent donc pas préparer l’offrande de Pessa’h ce jour-là. Ils se présentèrent devant Moïse et Aharon... et ils dirent “Pourquoi serions-nous privés d’apporter l’offrande de D.ieu en son temps, seuls parmi les Enfants d’Israël ?” » En réponse à leur requête, D.ieu fit du quatorzième jour de Iyar un « second Pessa’h » (Pessa’h Chéni) pour quiconque avait été dans l’incapacité d’apporter le sacrifice pascal la veille de Pessa’h, le mois précédent. Ce jour représente la « seconde chance » . « Le second Pessa’h enseigne qu’une situation n’est jamais désespérée. »Il est de coutume de marquer ce jour par la consommation de Matsa, si possible de la Matsa Chemoura, et d’omettre le Ta’hanoun des prières du jour.

Owning correct measures

 

"You shall have correct scales, correct weights... I am Hashem your God, Who took you out of Egypt." (19:35 - Kedoshim) What is the connection between Egypt and honest business practices?

The Torah commands us to deal honestly in all our endeavors, and specifically in business. Overcharging someone or tricking someone in business is stealing. The first book the Hafetz Haim wrote dealt with dishonest business practices. He writes that immediately following this law is the statement: "I am Hashem ...Who took you out of Egypt" This is because anyone who cheats his fellow man is denying that Hashem sees the truth. Disbelief in Hashem's omniscience is the most serious sin. He can just as easily deny that Hashem had taken Bnei Yisrael out of Egypt. We must believe and understand that Hashem sees and knows everything we are doing. Rashi explains that just as Hashem distinguished between the firstborns and the non-firstborns, so he can distinguish between your honest and dishonest practices. Rashi also explains that the exodus from Egypt was on the condition that we deal honestly with each other. Cheating someone is breaking our half of the bargain with Hashem.

 

 

Can you force someone to marry you?

As we all know, when a couple gets married, the man gives something to the woman and tells her that by accepting it, she is now sanctified to him. Can a man force a woman to accept and to marry him? Can a father force his daughter to marry someone of his choosing?

In Chapter 4 of Hilchot Ishut, Rambam rules that a woman cannot get married against her will. If someone did force her to accept, she is still not considered married to the man unless it was of her own free will.

On the other hand, if a man was forced to marry a woman and he goes through with it under duress, the marriage is valid. So, you can force a man to marry a woman, but you can’t force a woman to marry a man.

 

 

 

Who may I marry?

  1. Torah and the rabbis created restrictions on who a man may marry (and the same applies vice versa). They are arranged into categories:

 

  1. Arayot: Biblically the Torah forbids a man to marry certain women (and vice versa). In Leviticus chapter 18 we read of the “arayot”. These include mother, sister, etc. The punishment for having relations with any of these women is Karet.
    1. Direct relatives: 1. Mother, 2.sister, 3.Daughter (even though she is not directly mentioned in the verse), 4. Father’s sister, 5.Son’s daughter, 6.Daughter’s daughter. One may never marry these people as they are directly related to you.
    2. Relative’s wives: There are people that are related to you by marriage that you may not marry ever even if they get divorced or widowed from your relative: 7..Father’s wife, .
    3. 8 Paternal Brother’s wife, 9. Maternal brother’s wife 10 .Father’s brother’s wife, 11.Son’s wife. The only exception being you brother’s wife, if he died childless in which case one can do yibum (levirate marriage)
    4. Your Wife’s relatives: Once a man marries a woman, he can no longer marry certain relatives of his wife. Once he starts the kidushin he cannot marry these people even if he never completes his marriage, even if he marries her and then divorces her, and even after she dies. He may never marry: 12. Wife’s mother, 13. Wife’s mother’s mother, 14. Wife’s fathers mother, 15. Wife’s daughter, 16. Wife’s daughter’s daughter, 17. Wife’s son’s daughter.
    5. You may not marry your 18. wife’s sister while your wife is still alive, even if you divorce her.

 

  1. Sheniyot (seconds to the above): The rabbis added to those biblical arayot women a list of 20 women that a man cannot marry as they are similar to the above in some way. These 20 are 1) maternal grandmother (the Torah forbids marrying your mother, and the rabbis added the prohibition of marrying your mother’s mother as well). They also forbade her mother and so forth all the way back i.e. your mother’s mother’s mother’s mother’s mother). 2) the mother of your mother’s father (this does not go back generations but is limited to her. That woman’s mother you would be allowed to marry). 3) your father’s mother and her mother and her mother’s mother, etc. 4)The mother of your father’s father alone (this does not go back generations). 5) the wife of your father’s father 6) the wife of your mother’s father 7) the wife of your father’s brother (if your father and his brother have the same mother) 8) the wife of your mother’s brother (whether your mother and her brother share a father or a mother) 9) the wife of your son and the wife of your son’s son, etc for all generations. Rambam here notes that if Yaakov were alive today any married woman would be considered in this category as they are married to Yaakov’s great great….grandson. 10)t he wife of your daughter’s son (this does not extend for generations. You would be allowed to marry the wife of your daughter’s grandson) 11) The daughter of your son’s daughter. 12) the daughter of your son’s son. 13) the daughter of your daughter’s daughter. 14) the daughter of your daughter’s son 15) the daughter of the son of his wife’s son. 16) the daughter of the daughter of the daughter of your wife 17) the mother of the mother of your wife’s father 18) the mother of the father of your wife’s mother. 19 )the mother of the mother of your wife’s mother. 20) the mother of the father of your wife’s father. Note #1 (mother’s mother) and #3 (father’s mother) and #5 (the wife of your father’s father) go back for ever. Also #9 (your son’s wife) goes forward for ever. All the other’s are limited to that exact person. All these were permitted by the Torah but the rabbis forbade them. There is no biblical punishment for these as they were rabbinically enacted. The rabbis do gives rabbinic lashes for not listening to the rabbis if one marries one of these people. (Rambam)

 

Ahare Mot Quiz

1) Q. Why does the Torah emphasize that parashat Ahare Mot was taught after the death of Aaron's sons?

A. To strengthen the warning not to enter the Kodesh Kodashim except on Yom Kippur. Rashi gives a parable to a doctor who treated two patients. To the first patient he said you should not sleep on anything cold or eat any cold foods. To the second patient he said you should not sleep on anything cold or eat any cold foods, or else you will end up dying like the other man did. The second warning is a lot more effective. Similarly, Hashem wants to make sure Aharon understands the severity of these laws, so He reminds him that his two sons were killed, and then explains to him the laws.

 

2) Q. Why did Rachel, Yaakob's wife, die when they returned to Israel?

A. At the conclusion of Ahare Mot we read of the special holiness attributed to the land of Israel. Hashem warns that the holiness of the land cannot tolerate immoral acts [defined by Hashem's laws] and will chase out anyone who does not abide by Hashem's laws. In Tractate Ketubot (110b) our sages teach us that if someone lives outside of Israel it is almost as if he has no God, relative to the person who lives in Israel. The Ramban comments that the Patriarchs understood this special holiness of the land and observed the laws of the Torah before the laws were given. Before Bnei Yisrael reached Har Sinai they were not obligated to observe the commandments, but the Patriarchs did so while in Israel anyway. As an example, Ramban cites the incident with Yaakob; when he was outside the land of Israel, in Haran, he married two sisters. According to Jewish law this is forbidden. When they reached Israel, Rachel's righteousness allowed her to die, and Yaakob was not married to two sisters in Israel. (Many commentators disagree with this Midrash and state that the patriarchs did not keep the laws of the Torah, as they had not been given yet. Rather they may have kept the spirit of the laws. It is also interesting to note that although many believe

we know the burial site of Yaakob’s wife Rachel (and many pray there and get red strings from there), in reality we do not know where she is buried and there is disagreement among both rabbis and scholars if she is even buried anywhere near where her modern day tomb is).

 

 

Kedoshim Quiz

1) Q. Why was parashat Kedoshim said in front of all the Jewish People?

A. Because the fundamental teachings of the Torah are contained in this parasha.

 

2) Q. Why does the Torah mention the duty to fear one's mother before it mentions the duty to fear one's father, and in the Ten Commandments it says to honor your father, then your mother?

A. Since it is more natural to fear one's father, the Torah stresses the obligation to fear one's mother. On the other hand, people respect their mothers more than their fathers, so the Torah stressed to also respect your father.

 

3) Q. "You shall not be a gossipmonger among your people, you shall not stand aside while your fellow's blood is being shed - I am Hashem." Why are these two laws taught in the same Passuk?

A. The first law in the Passuk is not to be a gossipmonger. A gossipmonger is someone who goes from person to person spreading gossip like a peddler. The second law is that if you see someone's life is in danger you must help him (Unless you would be putting your own life in extreme danger). The Rambam says that these two laws are connected because many people lost their lives due to the serious sin of spreading gossip.

 

4) Q. What is the difference between the first and second halves of the book of Vayikra?

A. The first half of the book teaches laws related to the holiness we must keep in the Mishkan or temple. The second half of the book discusses the laws of being holy in our daily lives. This is accomplished through various biblically commanded laws including, respecting one’s parents, not bearing a grudge, being honest in business, not lying, not withholding someone’s due pay, not giving bad advice, etc. This Parasha has the most concentrated list of Mitzvot in the entire bible. All the laws of the Ten Commandments are found in this week’s Parasha as well.

Attachments area

 

PROVERBES TIRÉS DES PIRKÉ AVOT

Qui se gonfle d'orgueil de ses propres jugements est un homme stupide.
Proverbe hébreu ; Le Talmud, Pirké Avot - Ve siècle.

Qui n'augmente pas sa connaissance l'amoindrit.
Proverbe hébreu ; Le Talmud, Pirké Avot - Ve siècle.

Qui a acquis la connaissance s'est acquis la vie dans le monde futur.
Proverbe hébreu ; Le Talmud, Pirké Avot - Ve siècle.

La religion est un arbre de vie pour ceux qui s'y maintiennent.
Proverbe hébreu ; Le Talmud, Pirké Avot - Ve siècle

Apprendre m'est plus précieux qu'une abondance d'or et d'argent.
Proverbe hébreu ; Le Talmud, Pirké Avot - Ve siècle.

Tel est le monde, certains sont affamés, et d'autres rassasiés.
Proverbe hébreu ; Le Talmud, Pirké Avot - Ve siècle.

L'homme sage ne s'empresse pas de répondre, il questionne à propos, et répond judicieusement.
Proverbe hébreu ; Le Talmud, Pirké Avot - Ve siècle.

Tout amour repose sur un engagement, quand il est rompu, l'amour s'éteint.
Proverbe hébreu ; Le Talmud, Pirké Avot - Ve siècle.

La jalousie et la recherche des honneurs doivent exclure l'homme de la société.
Proverbe hébreu ; Le Talmud, Pirké Avot - Ve siècle.

 

JEWISH QUOTES:

"No labor, however humble, dishonors a man." ~~ Talmud, Nedarim 49b

Sell your merchandise while the dust of the day is still on your feet!" ~~ Talmud, Pesachim

"A man who does not want to buy should not say to a vendor: “How much does this thing cost?”" ~~ Derekh Eretz

"Who welcomes his friend with a smile is as one giving him the finest gifts in the world." ~~ Avot Derabbi Nathan

Shame not the old: we shall all be numbered among them." ~~ Ben Sira 8:6

Who is a hero? The man that turns an enemy into a friend." ~~ Avot Derabbi Nathan

This world is a raging ocean and you should imagine yourself always in a ship at sea." ~~ Sefer Chassidim

"No righteous man passes away before one like him is created." ~~ Talmud, Yoma

The only reason for time is so that everything doesn’t happen at once. " ~~ Albert Einstein

There are really only three types of people: those who make things happen, those who watch things happen, and those who say, “What happened?” " ~~ Ann Landers

 

 

 

THE SHABBAT SMILE:

Q: How many Jewish mother does it take the change a light bulb?
A: (Sigh) Don't bother, I'll sit in the dark, I don't want to be a nuisance to anybody .

--------------------------------------------

Ginsberg never pays his bills and is seen bargaining with a supplier. "Hey, Ginsberg," Goldberg asks him, why are you knocking that man's prices down ? You're never going to pay him anyway. Listen, - answers Grinsberg,- he is a nice chap. I just want to keep down his losses!

--------------------------------------------

Hello.
- Hello -that's you, Abe?
- Yes, this is Abe...
- It doesn't sound like Abe
- Well, this is Abe all right.
- You're positive it's Abe?
- Absolutely.
- Well, listen Abie, this is Moe. Can you lend me fifty dollars?
- OK , when Abe comes in, I'll tell him you called.

---------------------------------------------

. A man started to tell a joke at a party: "Two old jews were on their way..."
Suddenly he was interrupted by a sensitive guest.
"Why do so many jokes begin with Jews?"
"Oh, I'm sorry," apologized the story teller, "I'll start again.
Two old Chinese men were on their way to the Synagogue to see the Rabbi..."

 

 

Ruth met Esther at the mall; It’s the first time they’ve met since leaving school and they quickly get talking. Ruth says, "You were always so well organized in school, Esther, so I’m wondering, are you now living the well planned life you always said you would?"
"Oh yes Ruth, I certainly am," replies Esther. "My first marriage was to a multi-millionaire property developer; my second marriage was to a West End musical star; my third marriage was to Rabbi Levy, and at present I'm married to the chairman of The United Synagogue Burial Society."
"But I don’t understand, Esther," says Ruth. "What on earth do your marriages have to do with a well planned life?"
"Well it’s easy really," replies Esther. "It’s …. One for the Money, Two for the Show, Three to get Ready, and Four to Go

 

At the eve of their wedding day, Sarah tells her fiancé : May Hashem bless you and save you from all pains, troubles, fights, screams and headaches

Jacob says: But I don’t have any of these, Why are you saying that

Sarah: But Honey, We are not married yet

 

 

 

 

 

Chabbat Shalom

Maghen Abraham

David Hasson

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Wed, September 23 2020 5 Tishrei 5781